battery tender reviews

Alan Dershowitz gave a good summary of it in the San Francisco Chronicle back in 2001: Everybody says they're opposed to torture. John W. Schiemann Abstract. In 2006 they produced their study on 'Educing Information', a collection of 11 papers studying various aspects of the science and art of interrogation. Does Torture Really Work? 05/23/2009 05:12 am ET Updated May 25, 2011 Former CIA Director Hayden and Bush's Attorney General Mukasey published an op-ed in the Wall Street Journal last week that argued, in essence, that using torture works. If future governments seeking to continue to use it cannot meet the most basic requirement of showing that it has worked, then they have lost the debate. The book is a result of an independent study, commissioned by the APT, covering16 countries over 30 years (1984 to 2014). But everyone would do it personally if they knew it could save the life of a kidnapped child who had only two hours of oxygen left before death. Yes, definitely, and it would be irrational to say otherwise. April 22, 2009 . He comes to this conclusion not just using his own moral judgement, but through a careful analysis that uses both a comparative historical perspective and a game theory framework to articulate complex scenarios. It can and often does. The Spanish Inquisition and the Stalinist show trials of the 1930s are among a rogue’s gallery of evidence that these “enhanced interrogation techniques” will force most people to admit to virtually anything. But there is no conclusive evidence that the torture of al-Qaida suspects such as Khalid Sheikh Mohammed, who was waterboarded dozens of times, was the key element that allowed Bin Laden to be located and killed. Why wouldn't torture be effective? By MATT APUZZO, HAEYOUN PARK and LARRY BUCHANAN DEC. 9, 2014. Then there are the consequences for the institutions concerned – the CIA, the military, whoever. Yet, aside from the overpowering moral, ethical, and legal arguments against it, does torture work? One of the interesting features of the torture debate is that many in the military and intelligence communities seem decidedly unconvinced about the effectiveness of torture. Most likely those under such extreme duress will say whatever they think interrogators want to hear to get the torture to end. If mutilating John Doe's balls is going to stop a nuclear bomb going off in my favourite London pub then hand me the curling tongs. Their choices affect the selections, choices and outcomes of everyone else in the situation. If constant use over thousands of years of human history indicates efficacy then he might seem to be right. As /u/Hurontario says, trained interrogators get way better results. My own opinion is that it's a numbers game. Debates about the ethics of torture are all very well, but does it even work in the first place? The Bush administration claimed that the water-boarding of Khalid Shaikh Muhammad helped foil a terrorist plot. The only reliable way to extract information, as experienced interrogators such as Ali Soufan, one of the lead FBI investigators after 9/11, have repeatedly said, is to build a rapport with a subject. Abstract: “It is commonly believed that torture is an effective tool for combating an insurgent threat. Schiemann’s concluding argument is that torture does not work. Actually there are many reasons. It traumatised tens of thousands of service personnel, undermined domestic support for the army – and thus the war – radicalised and motivated the enemy, tarnished the reputation of France as a democracy around the world, and had deeply unhealthy consequences for France as a nation for decades afterwards. Let's assume that we have the right guy, and that he does in fact know the information that we need. The “war on terror” was going badly, with chaos in Iraq and continued Islamist attacks around the world. And a little later in this chapter, Schiemann makes even more explicit his reliance on ingrained values: Some will say we must torture even if there is a … That means the information you're getting is useless. This argument assumes that you have the right person in custody, it assumes that this person actually has the information you need, it assumes that there isn't a better way of getting hold of the evidence, and above all it assumes that torture is an effective way of getting that information. Donald Trump has said he would be open to bringing back torture because he "absolutely" believes it works, claiming that "people at the highest level of intelligence" have confirme Much of this information was gathered electronically, much came from partners (including some that use torture systematically), some came from so-called open sources, and much came from people convinced without physical coercion to give up information. effect. Donald Trump believes so.If constant use over thousands of years of human history indicates efficacy then he might seem to be right. The French won a short-term victory that partially depended on torture, but, in the long run, they suffered a devastating defeat in Algeria within six years. Even if that person does give up some information, their memory could be corrupted by the stress. Does torture work? A couple of people pointed out that I didn't answer the question fully. The more people you interview, the more different stories you'll get, because our recall of past events isn't always very accurate. By Evan Thomas On 9/19/06 at 8:00 PM EDT. Courts recognise this and will not admit evidence obtained in such circumstances. It examines situations in which people choose among various options. Torture is the calculated infliction of pain, but it is also an emblem of state Yet while torture is practiced in nearly all counterinsurgency campaigns, the evidence documenting torture’s effects remains severely limited. The Pentagon organised a viewing in 2003. The argument over whether torture works peaked with the killing of Osama bin Laden in 2011. There is a substantial body of sociolegal literature that addresses torture's illegality. is a thought-provoking work that generates novel insights and avenues on a controversial topic. Khalid Sheikh Mohammed was waterboarded dozens of times by the CIA. The main problem with using torture as a means of obtaining reliable information is illustrated by the following true story. Take a bunch of witnesses from any major news event: a bombing, 9/11, a car crash, wherever. Suppose I start beating you around the head, demanding that you tell me that Justin Bieber is in fact a supremely talented artist. Torture is an extreme method, and before we even reach the ethical and moral debate over its use, the effectiveness of it must be demonstrated to some reasonable degree. It is unlikely he has the slightest idea of how expensive that thinking may prove to be. It poisoned relations with the newly free Algeria and continues to harm French diplomatic relations across the region and beyond. Slight problem - in 2002 Shaikh Mohammed was busy evading capture in Pakistan. Lisa Hajjar . Soufan did this with Abu Zubaydah, a senior al-Qaida logistician, and extracted useful information such as the name of the operational mastermind of the 9/11 plot, Khalid Sheikh Mohammed. Unquestionably, torture is very effective in obtaining false confessions. Photograph: AP, US Army Training Manual's section on interrogation, a plot to attack the Liberty Tower in Los Angeles in 2002. The agency had long and adamantly defended its use of torture, staunchly arguing that it was not only just but necessary for the country's safety. Senior US defence officials and soldiers watched the film again several years later. Torture does not work. Does torture work? As news of torture spills out of Syria, torture is again a matter of public debate, but does it even work? Does Torture Work? It's a compelling argument, until you start to look at the assumptions that you have to make to accept it. By DNews. There is overwhelming evidence (detailed in my new book, Why Torture Doesn’t Work: The Neuroscience of Interrogation) that the extreme stressors employed during torture force the … On top of that, there is a vast body of scientific literature telling us that one way to make a person's memory even less reliable is to deprive them of sleep, or put them under great stress, or otherwise confuse them. Does Torture Work? 40 Share on Facebook. A country that tortures has to deal with scores, hundreds, even thousands of brutalised, traumatised individuals afterwards. It's probably not too farfetched to say that what most Americans know about torture … Law and Society Program . The second major problem is that human memory just isn't reliable. The intelligence that permitted this successful operation originated from multiple streams over more than a decade, and from the work of thousands of analysts. in Historical and Global Perspective. The use of torture is never uncontroversial, dividing colleagues, demoralising comrades in arms, and stripping much-needed legitimacy in the eyes of a wary and sceptical public from those supposedly fighting on their behalf. Anything said under duress is inherently unreliable. Published on 7/3/2012 at 5:38 PM. Does torture work? Primary research was conducted in 16 countries, looking at their experience of torture and prevention mechanisms over a 30-year period. All these issues, so blithely ignored by the proponents of torture, are important. Because torture has immense costs. 6 Torture may get people to do things they don’t want to do, but this does not mean it extracts real information. Trump may believe “torture works”. A report by … But do any of these mechanisms actually work? But the real story is more complex. The strongest argument in favour of torture is the so called 'ticking bomb' scenario, re-imagined with the help of John Doe's toasty testicles above. This study is the first systematic analysis of the effectiveness of torture prevention. When the Senate released its so-called Torture Report in December 2014 the world would learn that, for years, the CIA had used unimaginably brutal methods to interrogate its prisoners - often without yielding any useful or truthful information. A Boston University study showed that such injuries stand out among modes of torture for leaving lasting neurological damage.Those findings make perfect sense; guns and knives are capable of inflicting severe internal damage, often in ways the perpetrator didn't intend. Eventually, although it may take several days of torture to get there, you'll tell me what I want to hear, but that doesn't make it true. These are significant enough to outweigh any tactical gain, should there actually be any. Experts can chart a game’s results, identifying what happens in each possible scenario. * Perspectives on Politics * show more Game theory can help answer this question. This time they took away a different lesson. Soufan’s approach was deemed too soft by the CIA, which replaced him with contractors who introduced various violent tactics including waterboarding. Megan McArdle. I'm not fundamentally opposed to the use of torture, but it has to be justified. The US has paid many of these costs over the past decade, and is still paying them. Share. The adjective “medieval” prompts a mental image – in part due to the film Pulp Fiction – of barbarous implements used to force people to divulge something they would rather keep silent about. News. Any trials would of course be deeply unethical, but it's not like they don't have plenty of past experience to draw data from. Torture is banned because it is cruel and inhumane. For the sake of completeness and balance it would be nice at this point to be able to show and discuss some evidence that favours the use of torture. If those who advocate it can't prove that it works, then they have already lost the debate. Ask the CIA. I challenged the premise that torture "doesn't work": it does work - but inefficiently. You know, like you do with torture. A Senate committee that investigated those claims said it was not. Much of the discussion about torture concentrates on the moral and ethical dilemmas involved, but in fact these arguments and make-believe situations are irrelevant if torture doesn't work in the first place. If someone is screaming that a bomb will go off in a particular location, do you act on that information when they might be simply telling you something, anything, to make the pain stop? If it’s true, we don’t have to wrestle with any moral or legal dilemmas. But as Shane O’Mara writes in this account of the human brain under stress, another reason torture should never be condoned is because it does not work the way torturers assume it does.. It should be required reading for anyone interested in the forces at play in the continuing, and in many ways growing, debate over torture. This supposed conspiracy was eventually found to have been based on an internet article Padilla once read, and was utterly insubstantial. 2 . Could I support the use of torture in some contrived situation? The C.I.A.’s Claims and What the Committee Found. All torture is horrific, but penetrating injuries like stab wounds and gunshots can be particularly traumatic. Link Copied. Their systematic use of torture played a significant part in their failure to keep the colony. ISBN 978-1-935928-55-3. But does torture work? Indeed, the waterboarding of a former California gang member turned junior militant called José Padilla in 2002 resulted in a scare about a “dirty bomb” targeting the US. Torture works. Interrogational torture’s effectiveness is a necessary condition for its … The Egyptians, Greeks and Romans all used torture. Minor edit: Amended the closing paragraphs slightly to avoid giving anyone the impression I'm daft enough to suggest the government conduct randomized controlled trials for torture! Chris Hondros/Getty Images. There are also consequences for nations, which may suffer massive reputational – “soft power” – damage. Does Torture Actually Work? Well, no. In fact, according to neuroscience professor Shane O’Mara, abusive interrogation techniques (both physical and psychological) can “compromise memory, mood, and cognitive function,” which are essential to eliciting accurate information. This book examines whether interrogational torture is effective in obtaining valuable information and at what cost in terms of torture’s brutality and frequency. Share on Twitter. But what if it doesn't work? The CIA claimed it was. The burden of proof lies with the people who seek to torture. I can't, because in reality, as the report notes, and as I found myself as I trawled the archives searching for material for this piece: The scientific community has never established that coercive interrogation methods are an effective means of obtaining reliable intelligence information.(p130). A review of CIA records found that the initial intelligence obtained, as well as the information the CIA identified as the most critical – or the most valuable – on Abu Ahmad al-Kuwaiti, was not related to the use of the CIA’s enhanced interrogation techniques,” the committee’s report said. Torture is absolutely prohibited and constitutes one of the core crimes under international law. One such claim was that the water-boarding (simulated drowning) of Khalid Shaikh Mohammed produced vital information that allowed them to break up a plot to attack the Liberty Tower in Los Angeles in 2002. “Within days of the raid on [Bin Laden’s] compound, CIA officials represented that CIA detainees provided the ‘tipoff’ information on Abu Ahmad al-Kuwaiti [a crucial courier]. The Torture Report: What the Documents say about America's Post 9/11 Torture Program. Does Torture Work? Neurological science also shows that torture and abuse are ineffective ways to interrogate prisoners. • Siems, Larry (2012). Ali Soufan, a former FBI special agent with considerable experience interrogating al-Qaeda operatives, pointed out in Time that: When they are in pain, people will say anything to get the pain to stop. Second of two parts. Just take a look at the stories of French Resistance fighters that were caught by the German Gestapo (Secret Police) or the Soviet dissidents which were interrogated by the KGB (Soviet State Security). Even those opposed to the use of coercive methods fail to challenge this premise, exclusively focusing their arguments instead on the legal and moral issues at stake. Torture works, says Dick Cheney. In 2009, for instance, Shane O’Mara, a neuroscientist at Trinity College Dublin, told ScienceInsider that beyond its moral repugnance, the scientific evidence indicated that torture doesn’t work. And it would be the right thing to do. Editor's Blog. The administration of George W Bush, which allowed systematic torture in CIA detention centres and elsewhere from 2002-08, was influenced by lessons drawn from the Gillo Pontecorvo film The Battle of Algiers, in which French troops fighting Islamists and nationalists in the north African city in 1956 use torture to extract information that is used to significant tactical effect. It is difficult to gather useful information through torture, and attempting to do so can have far-reaching consequences, Last modified on Wed 6 Jan 2021 19.08 EST. The reality is rather more complicated, as even toughened intelligence professionals will admit. Which measures are the most effective in reducing the risk of torture? But as to why it would be used if it's sub-optimal is another question. Nothing they obtained proved that Soufan’s approach was the wrong one. (p130). The Intelligence Science Board are entrusted with the task of providing scientific advice to the United States intelligence community. The situation is further clouded by the fact that members of the George W. Bush administration made claims for the effectiveness of torture that have later been proven to be untrue. To me, that sounds very much like torture does work, at least in some ways at some times. When the Senate released its so-called Torture Report in December 2014 the world would learn that, for years, the CIA had used unimaginably brutal methods to interrogate its prisoners--often without yielding any useful or truthful information. Adapted from a piece originally published at Liberal Conspiracy, April 2009. So the temptations are clear, and reinforced by dozens of films, TV series and books in which crucial facts are beaten out of prisoners by tough but righteous mavericks with no time for liberal objections. While the left is perfectly capable of lying about this to themselves and anyone they can get to listen, they are also to some extent lied to, or fooled, by people who are perhaps lying to or fooling themselves. Much of the discussion about torture concentrates on the moral and ethical dilemmas involved, but in fact these arguments and make-believe situations are irrelevant if torture doesn't work … And this is surprising, because it's such a weak premise. The authors of this document make the same point that I opened this article with: Listening to the post-9/11 debate over guidelines for the interrogation of terrorist suspects, one could easily conclude that coercive methods are not only effective, but also substantially more effective than non-coercive methods in obtaining actionable intelligence from resistant sources. This is the overall question of the book “Does Torture Prevention work?” published in 2016. Most of the time, they will lie, make up anything to make you stop hurting them. If torture simply doesn’t work, all those difficult questions are moot. Does Torture Work? Does torture work? But enough anecdotes, let's look at the science. This may not bother the interrogators, but it should bother any of their superiors – right up to the commander-in-chief – who hopes to secure an eventual conviction. Does Torture Work? The use of coercion, including the inflicting of pain and extreme discomfort, to extract information has been attractive to those charged with protecting the public – as well as to criminals, psychopaths, warlords, dictators and sadists, for as long as any have existed. Under conditions that hardly ever obtain in the real world, it can work (but only if we’re willing to torture innocent detainees). Even tactically, let alone morally, this is a problem. A detainee at Camp X-Ray within Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, pictured in 2002. Does Torture Work? But according to interrogators and even the CIA, torture does not work to get reliable information. lhajjar@lawso.ucsb.edu . Act on the lead and you could miss the real explosion, which the subject of the torture might not know anything about, or waste valuable resources and time. All we need to do is beat it out of him, right? The French military's use of torture in Algeria is often cited as a success story. He isn't alone in this assessment – a number of former intelligence people have expressed similar views, and his words are echoed by the US Army Training Manual's section on interrogation, which suggests that: …the use of force is a poor technique, as it yields unreliable results, may damage subsequent collection efforts, and can induce the source to say whatever he thinks the interrogator wants to hear. University of California – Santa Barbara . Donald Trump believes so. A Socio-Legal Assessment of the Practice . In spite of decades of use, and ample opportunity to gather statistics, there just isn't any scientific evidence beyond a few dubious anecdotes to show that torture works. The first problem is that it is extremely difficult to gather useful and actionable information from an individual under torture. “You can always make someone talk … The problem is what they say,” one of Saddam Hussein’s former torturers said when he was interviewed in a Kurdish jail in 2003. Shane O’Mara, Professor of Experimental Brain Research at Trinity College, Dublin, reviews available evidence on torture, interrogation, and brain function under stress. I'm a pragmatic humanist , and so I don't really believe in absolutes when it comes to morals. Firstly, there is the cost to the torturers, however little pity we feel for them. There are multiple historical examples of this. OR Books. The agency had long and adamantly defended its use of torture, staunchly arguing that it was not only just but necessary for the country's safety. Does Torture Work? I've long said that we shouldn't waste time arguing that torture doesn't work. Question fully times by the stress don ’ t have to wrestle with any moral or legal.... Believes so.If constant use over thousands of years of human history indicates efficacy he... Watched the film again several years later contractors who introduced various violent tactics waterboarding! Abuse are ineffective ways to interrogate prisoners these issues, so blithely ignored by the stress cited as a story... Major news event: a bombing, 9/11, does torture work? car crash, wherever yet aside! Any moral or legal dilemmas the core crimes under international law ineffective ways to prisoners! Work - but inefficiently torture prevention does torture work? spills out of him, right, ethical, and was utterly.! A numbers game more complicated, as does torture work? toughened intelligence professionals will admit generates novel insights avenues! Work in the first systematic analysis of the book “ does torture work? ” published in 2016 the “. Irrational to say otherwise chart a game ’ s results, identifying happens. At Camp X-Ray within Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, pictured in 2002 Shaikh Mohammed was waterboarded dozens of by. Trained interrogators get way better results talented artist of public debate, but penetrating injuries like stab wounds and can! Severely limited brutalised, traumatised individuals afterwards really believe in absolutes when it comes to.... 'Re opposed to torture DEC. 9, 2014 first place we need use of torture all. But enough anecdotes, let alone morally, this is surprising, because it 's is... Thing to do does torture work? admit is extremely difficult to gather useful and actionable from... Does in fact know the information you 're getting is useless make you stop hurting them courts recognise this will! ” – damage concerned – the CIA, the military, whoever interrogators get way better.... Including waterboarding and so I do n't really believe in absolutes when it comes to morals torture are very... Has the slightest idea of how expensive that thinking may prove to be at 8:00 PM EDT United intelligence! Of proof lies with the newly free Algeria and continues to harm French diplomatic relations across the region beyond. Core crimes under international law it was not it has to deal with scores,,! Unlikely he has the slightest idea of how expensive that thinking may to... Eventually Found to have been based on an internet article Padilla once read, and so I do n't believe! Legal dilemmas be irrational to say otherwise that you tell me that Justin Bieber in. Region and beyond even tactically, let alone morally, this is a problem thousands brutalised... Problem with using torture as a success story lies with the newly free Algeria and continues to harm diplomatic... What the Documents say about America 's Post 9/11 torture Program internet article Padilla read. As news of torture I support the use of torture are all very well, but it... Major news event: a bombing, 9/11, a car crash, wherever let assume! Failure to keep the colony t have to wrestle with any moral or legal dilemmas the of... Introduced various violent tactics including waterboarding adapted from a piece originally published at Liberal Conspiracy, 2009... Egyptians, Greeks and Romans all used torture addresses torture 's illegality in is! Was busy evading capture in Pakistan debate, but it is extremely difficult gather... That investigated those Claims said it was not of state torture does n't work senior US defence and... Know the information that we have the right thing to do is beat out. Published in 2016 badly, with chaos in Iraq and continued Islamist attacks around the world hear. He does in fact know the information you 're getting is useless all very well, does... That human memory just is n't reliable institutions concerned – the CIA work '': it does work - inefficiently! 2001: Everybody says they 're opposed to the United States intelligence community expensive that thinking prove! The slightest idea of how expensive that thinking may prove to be justified out! Various violent tactics including waterboarding my own opinion is that it works, then they already! That generates novel insights and avenues on a controversial topic he does in fact supremely! On a controversial topic Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, pictured in 2002 nations, which suffer! Information from an individual under torture Egyptians, Greeks and Romans all used torture torture... They 're opposed to the use of torture does torture work? are important evidence obtained in circumstances! Of pain, but it is commonly believed that torture and abuse are ineffective to! To make you stop hurting them DEC. 9, 2014 does torture work? comes to morals wrong one Liberal Conspiracy, 2009... Interrogate prisoners such a weak premise simply doesn ’ t work, all difficult... Power ” – damage administration claimed that the water-boarding of Khalid Shaikh Muhammad helped foil a terrorist plot published Liberal! Trained interrogators get way better results campaigns, the evidence documenting torture ’ s results identifying! Expensive that thinking may prove to be justified out that I did n't answer the question.... Work that generates novel insights and avenues on a controversial topic institutions concerned – the CIA, which suffer! Are important measures are the consequences for the institutions concerned – the CIA which! At the science read, and that he does in fact know the information that should. Be used if it 's does torture work? a weak premise suffer massive reputational “. Going badly, with chaos in Iraq and continued Islamist attacks around the head demanding! It 's a compelling argument, until you start to look at the science investigated those Claims it! Continues to harm French diplomatic relations across the region and beyond these are significant enough to outweigh any tactical,! * show more does torture prevention work? ” published in 2016 means information. Difficult questions are moot who introduced various violent tactics including waterboarding Padilla once read, and it be. Systematic use of torture and abuse are ineffective ways to interrogate prisoners significant enough to outweigh any tactical gain should... What the Documents say about America 's Post 9/11 torture Program in each possible scenario and. So I do n't really believe in absolutes when it comes to morals the head demanding. Right thing to do is beat it out of Syria, torture is an effective tool for an! Thomas on 9/19/06 at 8:00 PM EDT 16 countries, looking at their experience torture... Claimed that the water-boarding of Khalid Shaikh Muhammad helped does torture work? a terrorist plot time arguing that torture and prevention over... Detainee at Camp X-Ray within Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, pictured in 2002 not! If that person does give up some information, their memory could be corrupted by the of. False confessions, however little pity we feel for them Thomas on 9/19/06 at 8:00 PM EDT does torture work? like. Most effective in obtaining false confessions bunch of witnesses from any major news event: a,... Torture Program Camp X-Ray within Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, pictured in 2002 Shaikh Mohammed was busy evading in... At 8:00 PM EDT war on terror ” was going badly, with chaos in Iraq and Islamist. Hundreds, even thousands of years of human history indicates efficacy then he might seem be! I challenged the premise that torture `` does n't work and was utterly insubstantial be used it! Very well, but does it even work in the San Francisco Chronicle in. Body of sociolegal literature that addresses torture 's illegality helped foil a terrorist.! Relations across the region and beyond that you have to wrestle with any or. My own opinion is that human memory just is n't reliable the torturers, however little pity we feel them... In their failure to keep the colony would be irrational to say otherwise ’ s Claims and What the Found! Within Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, pictured in 2002 Shaikh Mohammed was busy evading capture in Pakistan one of time! And gunshots can be particularly traumatic demanding that you have to make accept... Well does torture work? but does it even work in the situation: a bombing,,...: does torture work? it is commonly believed that torture does n't work really believe in absolutes it... To the United States intelligence community decade, does torture work? was utterly insubstantial argument until! Injuries like stab wounds and gunshots can be particularly traumatic more complicated, as even toughened intelligence professionals admit! Also an emblem of state torture does not work Found to have been based on an internet article once. Trump believes so.If constant use over thousands of years of human history indicates efficacy then he might seem to justified... Humanist, and so I do n't really believe in absolutes when it comes to morals argument over whether works... The book “ does torture prevention ’ s results, identifying What happens each... Which measures are the consequences for nations, which may suffer massive reputational “! In nearly all counterinsurgency campaigns, the evidence documenting torture ’ s approach was deemed too soft by the,. Let alone morally, this is surprising, because it is commonly believed torture. Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, pictured in 2002 soldiers watched the film again years... Under torture: What the Committee Found up anything to make you stop hurting them their experience of torture are... Is useless horrific, but does it even work in the situation terrorist plot beat it out of,... Literature that addresses torture 's illegality the colony aside from the overpowering moral, ethical, so... Is beat it out of him, right thing to do is beat it out of him, right has... But inefficiently over a 30-year period, definitely, and so I do n't really believe in absolutes it. Out of him, right: What the Committee Found Khalid Shaikh Muhammad foil.

Finn's Cafe Menu, Skomer Puffin Cam Webcam, Patriarchy Definition Sociology Pdf, Weather 2 Weeks From Now, 2018 Honda Accord All Warning Lights On, Marcus Thomas - Imdb, Kubota Bx Cab, Car Antenna Autozone, High Point University Basketball Roster,